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Documents  Troubles de l'audition | enregistrements trouvés : 25

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Objectives: Although emerging evidence suggests that hearing loss (HL) is an independent risk factor for falls, it is unclear how HL may impact falls risk in adults with vestibular dysfunction and nonvestibular dizziness. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of HL on falls in patients with vestibular dysfunction and nonvestibular dizziness relative to a group of patients without dizziness. In addition, this study aimed to evaluate whether there was an interactive effect between HL and vestibular dysfunction or nonvestibular dizziness on the odds of falling.

Design: The authors conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 2,750 adult patients with dizziness evaluated at a tertiary care center vestibular clinic between June 1, 2015, and October 7, 2020. Only patients with available self-reported falls status, as extracted from the electronic medical record, were included. Patients were classified into the following diagnostic groups based on rotary chair testing and videonystagmography: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, n = 255), unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH, n = 456), bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH, n = 38), central dysfunction (n = 208), multiple diagnoses (n = 109), and dizzy, nonvestibular (n = 1,389). A control group of patients without dizziness (n = 295) was identified by a random sample of audiology patients. Degree of HL was characterized by the 4-frequency pure tone average (PTA) (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) of the better hearing ear. Demographic variables, comorbidities, cognitive impairment status, and falls-associated medications were extracted from the electronic medical record and included as covariates during analysis. Potential associations between PTA and falls status and possible interactions between diagnostic group and PTA were explored using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The BVH and central dysfunction groups had the highest rates of self-reported falls at 26.3% and 26.9%, respectively. The control group had the lowest rate of self-reported falls at 6.4%. With the exception of the multiple diagnoses group, all diagnostic groups had elevated odds of falling compared with the control group, when adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, cognitive impairment status, and falls-associated medications. There was no significant association between degree of HL and falls status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93, 1.11; p = 0.713) when adjusting for diagnostic group and all other covariates. Furthermore, there were no significant interactions between diagnostic group and degree of HL on the odds of falling.

Conclusions: These results indicate that HL was not associated with falls in patients with vestibular dysfunction or nonvestibular dizziness, while adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and falls-associated medications. There was no significant interactive effect observed between HL and vestibular dysfunction or nonvestibular dizziness on the odds of falling. As previously reported, vestibular dysfunction and nonvestibular dizziness were independently associated with falls relative to a group of patients without dizziness. A population-based study utilizing more robust falls data is needed to explore a potential association between HL and falls in those with vestibular dysfunction.
Objectives: Although emerging evidence suggests that hearing loss (HL) is an independent risk factor for falls, it is unclear how HL may impact falls risk in adults with vestibular dysfunction and nonvestibular dizziness. The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact of HL on falls in patients with vestibular dysfunction and nonvestibular dizziness relative to a group of patients without dizziness. In addition, this study aimed to ...

Troubles de l'audition ; Vertige

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Objectives: This study examined the performance of a group of adult cochlear implant (CI) candidates (CIC) on visual tasks of verbal learning and memory. Preoperative verbal learning and memory abilities of the CIC group were compared with a group of older normal-hearing (ONH) control participants. Relations between preoperative verbal learning and memory measures and speech recognition outcomes after 6 mo of CI use were also investigated for a subgroup of the CICs.

Design: A group of 80 older adult participants completed a visually presented multitrial free recall task. Measures of word recall, repetition learning, and the use of self-generated organizational strategies were collected from a group of 49 CICs, before cochlear implantation, and a group of 31 ONH controls. Speech recognition outcomes were also collected from a subgroup of 32 of the CIC participants who returned for testing 6 mo after CI activation.

Results: CICs demonstrated poorer verbal learning performance compared with the group of ONH control participants. Among the preoperative verbal learning and memory measures, repetition learning slope and measures of self-generated organizational clustering strategies were the strongest predictors of post-CI speech recognition outcomes.

Conclusions: Older adult CI candidates present with verbal learning and memory deficits compared with older adults without hearing loss, even on visual tasks that are independent from the direct effects of audibility. Preoperative verbal learning and memory processes reflecting repetition learning and self-generated organizational strategies in free recall were associated with speech recognition outcomes 6 months after implantation. The pattern of results suggests that visual measures of verbal learning may be a useful predictor of outcomes in postlingual adult CICs.
Objectives: This study examined the performance of a group of adult cochlear implant (CI) candidates (CIC) on visual tasks of verbal learning and memory. Preoperative verbal learning and memory abilities of the CIC group were compared with a group of older normal-hearing (ONH) control participants. Relations between preoperative verbal learning and memory measures and speech recognition outcomes after 6 mo of CI use were also investigated for a ...

Implant cochléaire ; Troubles de l'audition ; Perception de la parole

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Objectives: Impaired speech-in-noise perception affects individuals' daily lives and is a frequent symptom of age-related hearing loss, which is a common disabling condition and a health concern in aging populations. The relative impact of hearing sensitivity loss and different cognitive functions on speech-in-noise perception is not well understood. We aimed to assess to what extent hearing sensitivity and different cognitive functions were associated with sentence-in-noise performance across the adult lifespan.

Design: This study is based on data of 2585 participants of the Rhineland Study, which is a German community-based cohort study of persons of age 30 years and older. We assessed speech-in-noise with a sentence-in-noise test (Gottinger Satztest), hearing sensitivity thresholds (air conduction pure-tone audiometry [PTA] average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz), and the following cognitive domains: crystallized intelligence (German Mehrfachwahl-Wortschatz-Intelligenztest, MWT-B), executive functioning (Trail Making Test B, TMT), working memory (Digit Span forward, DS), and long-term memory (Verbal Learning and Memory Test delayed recall; VLMT). We examined the association between hearing sensitivity and cognitive functions with sentence-in-noise perception using a multivariable linear regression model adjusted for age, sex, and multiple potential confounders.

Results: Better hearing sensitivity was associated with better speech-in-noise perception (0.25 signal noise ratio [SNR] dB HL decrease per 5 dB HL decrease in PTA; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.25; p < 0.001). Better cognitive performance was also associated with better speech-in-noise perception, but to a lesser extent. Crystallized intelligence (MWT-B) showed an effect size of -0.10 SNR dB HL decrease per SD (95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06; p < 0.001), executive functioning (TMT) of -0.08 SNR dB HL decrease per SD (95% CI: -0.13 to -0.03; p = 0.002), working memory (DS) of -0.04 SNR dB HL decrease per SD (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.003; p = 0.03), and long-term memory (VLMT) of -0.03 SNR dB HL decrease per SD (95% CI: -0.07 to 0.01; p = 0.12). The standardized effect of hearing sensitivity ([latin sharp s] = 0.34) on speech-in-noise perception was four to five times larger than the effects of crystallized intelligence ([latin sharp s] = -0.08) and executive functioning ([latin sharp s] = -0.06).

Conclusions: Hearing sensitivity was the strongest determinant of sentence-in-noise perception in adults above the age of 30. We determined the relative effect of different cognitive functions on sentence-in-noise perception. Crystallized intelligence and executive functions showed stronger associations while working and long-term memory functions had much smaller independent effects. Our results contribute to the understanding of determinants of speech-in-noise perception in aging adults.
Objectives: Impaired speech-in-noise perception affects individuals' daily lives and is a frequent symptom of age-related hearing loss, which is a common disabling condition and a health concern in aging populations. The relative impact of hearing sensitivity loss and different cognitive functions on speech-in-noise perception is not well understood. We aimed to assess to what extent hearing sensitivity and different cognitive functions were ...

Troubles de l'audition ; Perception de la parole

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Objectives: Recent studies have shown an association between poorer hearing thresholds and smaller brain tissue volumes in older adults. Several underlying causal mechanisms have been opted, with a sensory deprivation hypothesis as one of the most prominent. If hearing deprivation would lead to less brain volume, hearing aids could be hypothesized to moderate this pathway by restoration of hearing. This study aims to investigate whether such a moderating effect of hearing aids exists.

Design: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study involving aging participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. Hearing aid use was assessed by interview and hearing loss was quantified using pure-tone audiometry. Total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume and white matter integrity [fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity] were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Only participants with a pure tone average at 1, 2, and 4 kHz (PTA1,2,4) of >=35 dB HL were included. Associations of hearing loss with brain volume and global measures of white matter integrity were analyzed using linear regression, with hearing aid use and interaction between hearing aid use and PTA1,2,4 included as independent variables. Models were adjusted for age, sex, time between audiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, level of education, and cardiovascular risk factors.

Results: Out of 459 included participants with mean age (range) 70.4 (52 to 92) 41% were female. Distributions of age and sex among hearing aid users (n = 172) did not significantly differ from those without hearing aids. PTA1,2,4 was associated with lower FA, but not with a difference in total brain volume, gray matter volume, white matter volume, or mean diffusivity. Interaction between hearing aid use and PTA1,2,4 was not associated with FA or any of the other outcome measures. Additional analysis revealed that interaction between hearing aid use and age was associated with lower FA.

Conclusions: We found no evidence for a moderating effect of hearing aids on the relationship between hearing loss and brain structure in a population of older adults. However, use of hearing aids did appear as an effect modifier in the association between age and white matter integrity. Future longitudinal research is needed to clarify these results.
Objectives: Recent studies have shown an association between poorer hearing thresholds and smaller brain tissue volumes in older adults. Several underlying causal mechanisms have been opted, with a sensory deprivation hypothesis as one of the most prominent. If hearing deprivation would lead to less brain volume, hearing aids could be hypothesized to moderate this pathway by restoration of hearing. This study aims to investigate whether such a ...

Troubles de l'audition ; Cerveau - Physiologie

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Objectives: Humans can hear up to 20 kHz. Emerging evidence suggests that hearing in the extended high frequencies (EHFs; >8 kHz) contributes to speech perception in noise. The objective of the present study was to describe the features of EHF hearing impairment in young adults with normal standard audiograms (0.25-8 kHz). Specifically, the study goals were to: (1) characterize the EHF hearing impairment and identify potential risk factors; (2) elucidate the age-related changes in EHF hearing; (3) determine the effect of EHF hearing impairment on speech-in-noise recognition; and (4) examine the extent to which EHF hearing impairment influences cochlear functioning in the standard frequencies.

Design: Hearing thresholds at standard frequencies and EHFs (10, 12.5, 14, and 16 kHz), and speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) using digit triplets in multi-talker babble were measured in both ears from 222 participants (19-38 years; n = 444 ears) with normal audiograms (<=20 dB HL at standard frequencies). Test-retest measurement of hearing thresholds was obtained in a subset of 50 participants (100 ears), and clinical distortion product otoacoustic emissions (f2 frequency = 2, 3, 4, and 5 kHz) were recorded in 49 participants (98 ears).

Results: Forty-two of 222 participants had EHF hearing impairment (>20 dB HL for at least one EHF in either ear). Only seven individuals with EHF impairment had significant case history and/or listening-in-noise complaints. A breakpoint in the threshold-age function was observed for the EHFs for males but not for females. Linear mixed models revealed a significant effect of age, pure-tone averages for speech frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz), and EHFs and group (NH versus EHF hearing impairment) independent of each other on the SRTs. Individuals with EHF hearing impairment had less measurable emissions and when present, had a lower magnitude of otoacoustic emissions relative to NH controls. There was no difference in hearing thresholds, SRTs, or otoacoustic emissions between earphone users and nonusers.

Conclusions: The hearing thresholds for the EHFs exhibit signs of early auditory aging. Age-related deterioration in auditory function can be observed in the third decade of human life. A breakpoint in the threshold-age function suggests that rapid aging processes are operational at a relatively younger age (21 years) for males. The audibility of EHFs contributes to speech-in-noise recognition. EHF hearing impairment independent of age and speech frequencies can affect speech-in-noise recognition. Reduced distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the standard frequencies may suggest preclinical cochlear degeneration in individuals with EHF hearing impairment.
Objectives: Humans can hear up to 20 kHz. Emerging evidence suggests that hearing in the extended high frequencies (EHFs; >8 kHz) contributes to speech perception in noise. The objective of the present study was to describe the features of EHF hearing impairment in young adults with normal standard audiograms (0.25-8 kHz). Specifically, the study goals were to: (1) characterize the EHF hearing impairment and identify potential risk factors; (2) ...

Implant cochléaire ; Troubles de l'audition ; Perception de la parole

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Objectives: Adverse prenatal and early childhood development may increase susceptibility of hearing loss in adulthood. The objective was to assess whether indices of early development are associated with adult-onset hearing loss in adults >=18 years.

Design: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, four electronic databases were searched for studies reporting associations between indices of early development (birth weight and adult height) and adult-onset hearing loss in adults >=18 years. We screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Authors were contacted to provide adjusted odds ratios from a logistic regression model for relationships between birth weight/adult height and normal/impaired hearing enabling a two-step individual patient data random-effects meta-analysis to be carried out. The study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020152214.

Results: Four studies of birth weight and seven of adult height were identified. Three studies reported smaller birth weight associated with poorer adult hearing. Six studies reported shorter height associated with poorer hearing. Risk of bias was low to moderate. Four studies provided data for two-step individual patient data random-effects meta-analysis. Odds of hearing impairment were 13.5% lower for every 1 kg increase in birth weight [OR: 0.865 (95% confidence interval: 0.824 to 0.909)] in adulthood over two studies (N=81,289). Every 1 cm increase in height was associated with a 3% reduction in the odds of hearing impairment [OR: 0.970 (95% confidence interval: 0.968 to 0.971)] over four studies (N=156,740).

Conclusions: Emerging evidence suggests that adverse early development increases the likelihood of hearing impairment in adulthood. Research and public health attention should focus on the potential for prevention of hearing impairment by optimizing development in early life.
Objectives: Adverse prenatal and early childhood development may increase susceptibility of hearing loss in adulthood. The objective was to assess whether indices of early development are associated with adult-onset hearing loss in adults >=18 years.

Design: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, four electronic databases were searched for studies reporting associations between indices of early development (birth weight and adult height) and ...

Troubles de l'audition

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Identification of speech from a "target" talker was measured in a speech-on-speech masking task with two simultaneous "masker" talkers. The overall level of each talker was either fixed or randomized throughout each stimulus presentation to investigate the effectiveness of level as a cue for segregating competing talkers and attending to the target. Experimental manipulations included varying the level difference between talkers and imposing three types of target level uncertainty: 1) fixed target level across trials, 2) random target level across trials, or 3) random target levels on a word-by-word basis within a trial. When the target level was predictable performance was better than corresponding conditions when the target level was uncertain. Masker confusions were consistent with a high degree of informational masking (IM). Furthermore, evidence was found for "tuning" in level and a level "release" from IM. These findings suggest that conforming to listener expectation about relative level, in addition to cues signaling talker identity, facilitates segregation of, and maintaining focus of attention on, a specific talker in multiple-talker communication situations.
Identification of speech from a "target" talker was measured in a speech-on-speech masking task with two simultaneous "masker" talkers. The overall level of each talker was either fixed or randomized throughout each stimulus presentation to investigate the effectiveness of level as a cue for segregating competing talkers and attending to the target. Experimental manipulations included varying the level difference between talkers and imposing ...

Perception de la parole ; Troubles de l'audition ; Masques

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Motivation influences the amount of listening effort (LE) exerted or experienced under challenging conditions, such as in high-noise environments. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to quantify the effects of motivation on LE. The review was pre-registered in PROSPERO, and performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies examined the influence of motivation or individual traits (related to motivation) on LE in adults. Motivational factors, coded as independent variables, included financial reward, evaluative threat, perceived competence, feedback, and individual traits. LE outcomes were categorized as subjective, behavioral, or physiological. The quality of evidence was assessed using an adaptation of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. Nested random-effects meta-analyses were performed to quantify and compare the influence of motivational factors across LE outcomes. After assessing 3,532 records, 48 studies met the inclusion criteria and 43 were included in the meta-analyses. Risk of bias was high, for example, many studies lacked sample size justification. Motivational factors had a small-to-medium effect (mean Cohen's d = 0.34, range: 0.11–0.72) on LE. When LE outcomes were considered collectively, an external manipulation of motivation (perceived competence) produced a larger mean effect size compared with individual traits. Some combinations of motivational factors and LE outcomes produced more robust effects than others, for example, evaluative threat and subjective LE outcomes. Although wide prediction intervals and high risk of bias mean that significant positive effects cannot be guaranteed, these findings provide useful guidance on the selection of motivational factors and LE outcomes for future research.
Motivation influences the amount of listening effort (LE) exerted or experienced under challenging conditions, such as in high-noise environments. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to quantify the effects of motivation on LE. The review was pre-registered in PROSPERO, and performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Eligible studies examined the influence of motivation or individual traits (related to motivation) on LE in ...

Écoute (Psychologie) ; Motivation (Psychologie) ; Troubles de l'audition

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Symptoms: Sudden Hearing Loss and Vertigo | Avril 2022 H

Article (ORL)

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Background and aims
Humans communicate primarily through spoken language and speech perception is a core function of the human auditory system. Among the autistic community, atypical sensory reactivity and social communication difficulties are pervasive, yet the research literature lacks in-depth self-report data on speech perception in this population. The present study aimed to elicit detailed first-person accounts of autistic individuals’ abilities and difficulties perceiving the spoken word.

Methods
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine autistic adults. The interview schedule addressed interviewees’ experiences of speech perception, factors influencing those experiences, and responses to those experiences. Resulting interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. The six-person study team included two autistic researchers, to reduce risk of neurotypical ‘overshadowing’ of autistic voices.

Results
Most interviewees reported pronounced difficulties perceiving speech in the presence of competing sounds. They emphasised that such listening difficulties are distinct from social difficulties, though the two can add and interact. Difficulties were of several varieties, ranging from powerful auditory distraction to drowning out of voices by continuous sounds. Contributing factors encompassed not only features of the soundscape but also non-acoustic factors such as multisensory processing and social cognition. Participants also identified compounding factors, such as lack of understanding of listening difficulties. Impacts were diverse and sometimes disabling, affecting socialising, emotions, fatigue, career, and self-image. A wide array of coping mechanisms was described.

Conclusions
The first in-depth qualitative investigation of autistic speech-perception experiences has revealed diverse and widespread listening difficulties. These can combine with other internal, interpersonal, and societal factors to induce profound impacts. Lack of understanding of such listening difficulties – by the self, by communication partners, by institutions, and especially by clinicians – appears to be a crucial exacerbating factor. Many autistic adults have developed coping strategies to lessen speech-perception difficulties or mitigate their effects, and these are generally self-taught due to lack of clinical support.

Implications
There is a need for carefully designed, adequately powered confirmatory research to verify, quantify, and disentangle the various forms of listening difficulty, preferably using large samples to explore heterogeneity. More immediate benefit might be obtained through development of self-help and clinical guidance materials, and by raising awareness of autistic listening experiences and needs, among the autistic community, communication partners, institutions, and clinicians.
Background and aims
Humans communicate primarily through spoken language and speech perception is a core function of the human auditory system. Among the autistic community, atypical sensory reactivity and social communication difficulties are pervasive, yet the research literature lacks in-depth self-report data on speech perception in this population. The present study aimed to elicit detailed first-person accounts of autistic individuals’ ...

Autisme ; Troubles du spectre de l'autisme ; Perception de la parole ; Troubles de l'audition ; Hyperacousie

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Background
Frailty is associated with poor health outcomes in later life. Recent studies suggested that hearing loss may be a potentially modifiable risk factor associated with frailty.

Methods
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between hearing loss and frailty in observational studies of adults aged 50 years or over. We included observational studies with participants ≥ 50 years old that have clear descriptions of hearing and frailty measurement methods. Meta-analyses were conducted using measurement of risk and 95 % confidence interval of each individual study. Quality assessment, risk of bias, heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Our study followed PRISMA guidelines.

Results
Our search identified 4508 manuscripts published in English between 1 and 2000 and 9 February 2021. Sixteen articles reported acceptable measurements of both hearing loss and frailty. Two papers were not suitable for meta-analysis. Twelve sets of cross-sectional data involving 12,313 participants, and three sets of longitudinal data involving 3042 participants were used in the meta-analysis. Hearing loss was associated with an 87 % increase in the risk of frailty among cross-sectional studies (risk ratio [RR] 1.87; 95 %CI 1.63–2.13) and 56 % among longitudinal studies (RR 1.56; 95 %CI 1.29–1.88). There was considerable heterogeneity among studies, but their quality rating, sample size or approach used to assess hearing loss did not change the results substantially.

Conclusions
The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies suggest that hearing loss increases the risk of frailty in later life. Whether this relationship is causal remains to be determined.
Background
Frailty is associated with poor health outcomes in later life. Recent studies suggested that hearing loss may be a potentially modifiable risk factor associated with frailty.

Methods
This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between hearing loss and frailty in observational studies of adults aged 50 years or over. We included observational studies with participants ≥ 50 years old that have clear ...

Personnes âgées ; Troubles de l'audition

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- 303 p.
Cote : WV272 P627m 2021

Sous-titre sur la page de couverture : Mastication, reniflement, déglutition : quand les bruits des autres vous gâches la vie ; Causes et symptômes : tout savoir sur la misophonie ; La thérapie intégrative pour se soigner émotionnellement.

Toutes les clés pour soulager la misophonie et agir sur ses causes émotionnelles.
· Comprendre la misophonie : ses origines multiples, essentiellement émotionnelles, ses manifestations et les troubles associés (hyperacousie, mais aussi acouphènes et vertiges).
· L'approche du Dr Piffaut pour agir sur les causes plutôt que sur les symptômes, grâce à la résolution émotionnelle EmRes, à l'EMDR, aux thérapies comportementales et cognitives et à la cohérence cardiaque.
·Des exercices pratiques, des témoignages de patients du diagnostic à la rémission, et des conseils pour les misophones et pour leur entourage.
Sous-titre sur la page de couverture : Mastication, reniflement, déglutition : quand les bruits des autres vous gâches la vie ; Causes et symptômes : tout savoir sur la misophonie ; La thérapie intégrative pour se soigner émotionnellement.

Toutes les clés pour soulager la misophonie et agir sur ses causes émotionnelles.
· Comprendre la misophonie : ses origines multiples, essentiellement émotionnelles, ses manifestations et les troubles ...

Troubles de l'audition ; Misophonie

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- 158 p.
Cote : WV272 H446a 2020

Acouphène ; Troubles de l'audition

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- 288 p.
Cote : WV270 D938s 2018

Troubles de l'audition ; Surdité

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- 98 p.
Cote : WV270 N134e 2018

Troubles de l'audition ; Surdité

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