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Documents  Personnes âgées | enregistrements trouvés : 125

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Physical Therapist Management of Patients With Suspected or Confirmed Osteoporosis: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy | Avril-juin 2022 H Nouveau

Article | Veille Physiothérapie, Veille Gériatrie-gérontologie (Physiothérapie, Gériatrie - gérontologie)

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A clinical practice guideline on physical therapist management of patients with suspected or confirmed osteoporosis was developed by a volunteer guideline development group (GDG) that was appointed by the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy (APTA Geriatrics). The GDG consisted of an exercise physiologist and 6 physical therapists with clinical and methodological expertise. The guideline was based on a systematic review of existing clinical practice guidelines, followed by application of the ADAPTE methodological process described by Guidelines International Network for adapting guidelines for cultural and professional utility. The recommendations contained in this guideline are derived from the 2021 Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) document: Management of Osteoporosis and the Prevention of Fragility Fractures. These guidelines are intended to assist physical therapists practicing in the United States, and implementation in the context of the US health care system is discussed.
A clinical practice guideline on physical therapist management of patients with suspected or confirmed osteoporosis was developed by a volunteer guideline development group (GDG) that was appointed by the Academy of Geriatric Physical Therapy (APTA Geriatrics). The GDG consisted of an exercise physiologist and 6 physical therapists with clinical and methodological expertise. The guideline was based on a systematic review of existing clinical ...

Personnes âgées ; Physiothérapie ; Ostéoporose

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A framework for rehabilitation for older adults living with dementia | Avril 2022 H Nouveau

Article | Veille Physiothérapie (Physiothérapie)

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Introduction & Background
The aging of the population assures increased prevalence of Individuals Living with Dementia (ILwD) and there will be an increased representation of this cohort requiring physical rehabilitation. If physical therapists (PTs) manage these patients as they do their age-matched, cognitively-intact peers, they will likely be unsuccessful. ILwD have unique needs related to interpersonal and pragmatic components of rehabilitation. Therapeutic nihilism (doubting the benefit of therapy) is well-documented in PTs, either because of existing biases about dementia or previous challenges in working with ILwD. Physical rehabilitation eligibility and placement decisions are often made by PTs without special training in dementia, based upon brief exposure to patients in environments not well-designed for their best functioning. This can lead to underestimation of rehabilitation potential and denial of future PT services. PTs who work with ILwD desire more practical knowledge and targeted skills. Those with more education and training have a more positive attitude and outlook related to ILwD.

Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a framework for rehabilitation with ILwD equipped with pragmatic ideas to facilitate therapeutic success. The four primary components of the model are: (1) Establish a personal RELATIONSHIP, (2) Use intentional verbal and nonverbal COMMUNICATION, (3) Understand and optimize MOTOR LEARNING capabilities, and (4) Create a safe, purposeful ENVIRONMENT. Specific strategies to help PTs optimize each component are provided with supporting evidence. The model is intended to be dynamic, encouraging PTs to capitalize on the most accessible strategies within their control for a given patient and setting.

Implications
This framework provides a practical resource for working with ILwD with immediate implications for facilitating therapeutic success. The model is displayed in a schematic that reminds the reader of ideas at a glance within the context of each of the components. If an appreciation for this content was among core competencies required among PTs working with ILwD, perhaps there would be significantly fewer patients written off as “uncooperative” or “unable to participate” in PT.
Introduction & Background
The aging of the population assures increased prevalence of Individuals Living with Dementia (ILwD) and there will be an increased representation of this cohort requiring physical rehabilitation. If physical therapists (PTs) manage these patients as they do their age-matched, cognitively-intact peers, they will likely be unsuccessful. ILwD have unique needs related to interpersonal and pragmatic components of r...

Rehabilitation ; Éducation ; Démence ; Personnes âgées

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Objective
To analyze the psychological and functional sequelae of the COVID-19 pandemic among older adults living in long term care facilities (LTCFs).
Design
Cohort longitudinal study
Setting ant participants
A total of 215 residents ≥ 65 years without moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, living in five LTCFs in Albacete (Spain).
Measurements
Baseline on-site data were collected between March - June 2020 and three-month follow-up between June to September 2020. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sleep disturbances were measured as psychological variables. Disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL), ambulation and frailty were assessed as functional variables. Differences were analyzed in relation to level of comorbidity and test positivity for COVID-19.
Results
At baseline, residents with COVID-19 presented worse functionality, higher frailty levels and malnutrition risk compared to non-COVID-19 residents. At three-month follow-up, higher rates of clinically significant depressive symptoms (57.7%), anxiety symptoms (29.3%), PTSD symptoms (19.1%) and sleep disturbances (93.0%) were found among residents regardless of COVID status. Thus, among 215 residents, 101 (47%) experienced a decline in BADL from baseline to the 3-month follow-up (median functional loss = 5 points in Barthel Index). In multivariate analyses, COVID-19 status did not explain either the functional or the ambulation loss. By contrast, residents with low comorbidity and COVID-19 presented higher PTSD symptoms (effect 2.58; 95% CI 0.93 to 4.23) and anxiety symptoms (effect 2.10; 95% CI 0.48 to 3.73) compared to the low comorbidity/non-COVID19 group.
Conclusion
COVID-19 pandemic was associated, after three-months, with high psychological impact in older adults in LTCFs., specifically with higher post-traumatic stress and anxiety symptoms. Functional decline did not differ in relation to COVID-19 status but could be related to isolation strategies used for pandemic control.
Objective
To analyze the psychological and functional sequelae of the COVID-19 pandemic among older adults living in long term care facilities (LTCFs).
Design
Cohort longitudinal study
Setting ant participants
A total of 215 residents ≥ 65 years without moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, living in five LTCFs in Albacete (Spain).
Measurements
Baseline on-site data were collected between March - June 2020 and three-month follow-up between ...

Personnes âgées ; Coronavirus ; COVID-19

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Heart Failure in Older Adults: Medical Management and Advanced Therapies | Mars 2022 H

Article (Gériatrie - gérontologie)

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As the population ages and the prevalence of heart failure increases, cardiologists and geriatricians can expect to see more elderly patients with heart failure in their everyday practice. With the advancement of medical care and technology, the options for heart failure management have expanded, though current guidelines are based on studies of younger populations, and the evidence in older populations is not as robust. Pharmacologic therapy remains the cornerstone of heart failure management and has improved long-term mortality. Prevention of sudden cardiac death with implantable devices is being more readily utilized in older patients. Advanced therapies have provided more options for end-stage heart failure, though its use is still limited in older patients. In this review, we discuss the current guidelines for medical management of heart failure in older adults, as well as the expanding literature on advanced therapies, such as heart transplantation in older patients with end-stage heart failure. We also discuss the importance of a multidisciplinary care approach including consideration of non-medical co-morbidities such as frailty and cognitive decline.
As the population ages and the prevalence of heart failure increases, cardiologists and geriatricians can expect to see more elderly patients with heart failure in their everyday practice. With the advancement of medical care and technology, the options for heart failure management have expanded, though current guidelines are based on studies of younger populations, and the evidence in older populations is not as robust. Pharmacologic therapy ...

Personnes âgées ; Arrêt cardiaque - Traitement

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Falls in older adults remain a pressing health concern. With advancements in data analytics and increasing uptake of electronic health records, developing comprehensive predictive models for fall risk is now possible. We aimed to systematically identify studies involving the development and implementation of predictive falls models which used routinely collected electronic health record data in home-based, community and residential aged care settings. A systematic search of entries in Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted in July 2020 using search terms relevant to aged care, prediction, and falls. Selection criteria included English-language studies, published in peer-reviewed journals, had an outcome of falls, and involved fall risk modelling using routinely collected electronic health record data. Screening, data extraction and quality appraisal using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program for Clinical Prediction Rule Studies were conducted. Study content was synthesised and reported narratively. From 7,329 unique entries, four relevant studies were identified. All predictive models were built using different statistical techniques. Predictors across seven categories were used: demographics, assessments of care, fall history, medication use, health conditions, physical abilities, and environmental factors. Only one of the four studies had been validated externally. Three studies reported on the performance of the models. Adopting predictive modelling in aged care services for adverse events, such as falls, is in its infancy. The increased availability of electronic health record data and the potential of predictive modelling to document fall risk and inform appropriate interventions is making use of such models achievable. Having a dynamic prediction model that reflects the changing status of an aged care client is key to this moving forward for fall prevention interventions.
Falls in older adults remain a pressing health concern. With advancements in data analytics and increasing uptake of electronic health records, developing comprehensive predictive models for fall risk is now possible. We aimed to systematically identify studies involving the development and implementation of predictive falls models which used routinely collected electronic health record data in home-based, community and residential aged care ...

Personnes âgées ; Chutes chez la personne âgée

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Substance P (SP) and Calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) are released by sensory nerve fibers in the oropharynx. Patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) present reduced oropharyngeal sensitivity and low SP concentration in saliva. We aimed to assess the concentration of salivary SP and CGRP in healthy volunteers, and older people without and with OD, and the relationship with pharyngeal sensory threshold. We included 15 healthy volunteers, 14 healthy elderly and 14 elderly with OD. Swallow function was assessed by videofluoroscopy (VFS). Pharyngeal sensory threshold was assessed by intrapharyngeal electrical stimulation. Hydration and phase angle were assessed by bioimpedance. Saliva samples were collected with a Salivette® to determine SP and CGRP concentration by ELISA. Elderly patients with OD presented impaired safety of swallow (PAS 4.38 ± 0.77 p < 0.0001 vs. healthy volunteers = 1 and healthy elderly = 1.43 ± 0.51). Healthy elderly and elderly with OD presented a reduction in intracellular water and saliva volume (healthy elderly, 592.86 ± 327.79 μl, p = 0.0004; elderly with OD, 422.00 ± 343.01 μl, p = 0.0001 vs healthy volunteers, 1333.33 ± 615.91 μl, r = 0.6621, p < 0.0001). Elderly patients with OD presented an impairment in pharyngeal sensory threshold (10.80 ± 3.92 mA vs. healthy volunteers, 5.74 ± 2.57 mA; p = 0.007) and a reduction in salivary SP (129.34 pg/ml vs. healthy volunteers: 173.89 pg/ml; p = 0.2346) and CGRP levels (24.17 pg/ml vs. healthy volunteers: 508.18 pg/ml; p = 0.0058). There was a negative correlation between both SP and CGRP concentrations and pharyngeal sensory threshold (r = − 0.450, p = 0.024; r = − 0.4597, p = 0.036, respectively), but only SP identified elderly patients with OD with higher pharyngeal sensory threshold. Elderly patients with OD presented hydropenia and sarcopenia, reduced salivary SP and CGRP and impaired pharyngeal sensitivity. Our study suggests SP levels in saliva as a potential biomarker to monitor pharyngeal sensitivity in elderly patients with OD.
Substance P (SP) and Calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) are released by sensory nerve fibers in the oropharynx. Patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) present reduced oropharyngeal sensitivity and low SP concentration in saliva. We aimed to assess the concentration of salivary SP and CGRP in healthy volunteers, and older people without and with OD, and the relationship with pharyngeal sensory threshold. We included 15 healthy v...

Personnes âgées ; Troubles de la déglutition

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Sarcopenic Dysphagia, Malnutrition, and Oral Frailty in Elderly: A Comprehensive Review | Février 2022 H

Article (Gériatrie - gérontologie)

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Frailty is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly that has been increasingly considered as a crucial public health issue, due to the strict correlation with a higher risk of fragility fractures, hospitalization, and mortality. Among the age-related diseases, sarcopenia and dysphagia are two common pathological conditions in frail older people and could coexist leading to dehydration and malnutrition in these subjects. “Sarcopenic dysphagia” is a complex condition characterized by deglutition impairment due to the loss of mass and strength of swallowing muscles and might be also related to poor oral health status. Moreover, the aging process is strictly related to poor oral health status due to direct impairment of the immune system and wound healing and physical and cognitive impairment might indirectly influence older people’s ability to carry out adequate oral hygiene. Therefore, poor oral health might affect nutrient intake, leading to malnutrition and, consequently, to frailty. In this scenario, sarcopenia, dysphagia, and oral health are closely linked sharing common pathophysiological pathways, disabling sequelae, and frailty. Thus, the aim of the present comprehensive review is to describe the correlation among sarcopenic dysphagia, malnutrition, and oral frailty, characterizing their phenotypically overlapping features, to propose a comprehensive and effective management of elderly frail subjects.
Frailty is a highly prevalent condition in the elderly that has been increasingly considered as a crucial public health issue, due to the strict correlation with a higher risk of fragility fractures, hospitalization, and mortality. Among the age-related diseases, sarcopenia and dysphagia are two common pathological conditions in frail older people and could coexist leading to dehydration and malnutrition in these subjects. “Sarcopenic dysphagia” ...

Malnutrition ; Personnes âgées ; Sarcopénie - Évaluation ; Dysphasie

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Z-drugs are usually prescribed as first line pharmacological therapy for insomnia. However, the benefits and risks of Z-drugs may differ for older adults. This systematic review investigated the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of Z-drugs in the management of insomnia in older adults. The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews, meta-analyses, controlled interventional and observational studies using a pre-formulated search term. The target population was older adults (≥65 years old) with insomnia. Studies were included if they reported efficacy and/or safety outcomes of the use of Z-drugs for the management of insomnia compared to placebo, usual or no treatment, or other pharmacological agents. Eighteen studies were included (8 interventional and 10 observational studies). In short-term interventional studies, Z-drugs were similarly or better efficacious in improving both sleep and daytime parameters than placebo or other pharmacological treatments, while showing good results on measures of safety. However, in longer-term observational studies, Z-drugs significantly increased the risk for falls and fractures in comparison to no treatment or melatonin agonists. Analyzing the evidence from short-term interventional studies, Z-drugs appear effective and safe for treatment of insomnia in older adults, but they may have unfavorable side effects when used for longer periods of time. We, therefore, recommend discontinuing Z-drugs, principally because of the high risk for falls and fractures. Nonetheless, quality and quantity of evidence are low. Due to the scarcity of data, especially concerning drug dependence after longer periods of treatment and due to the significantly increased risk for falls and fractures, further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit-risk profile of Z-drugs use in older patients, particularly for long-term use.
Z-drugs are usually prescribed as first line pharmacological therapy for insomnia. However, the benefits and risks of Z-drugs may differ for older adults. This systematic review investigated the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of Z-drugs in the management of insomnia in older adults. The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for ...

Personnes âgées ; Médicaments - Usage - Prévention ; Insomnie - Thérapeutique

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Objectives
Regular physical activity (PA) is considered important after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Objective was to systematically assess literature on recommendations given by healthcare professionals to persons after THA and TKA and to provide an overview of existing interventions to stimulate PA and sports participation.

Methods
A systematic review with a narrative synthesis including articles published between January 1995 and January 2021 reporting on recommendations and interventions. The PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycInfo databases were systematically searched for original articles reporting on physical activity and sports recommendations given by healthcare professionals to persons after THA and TKA, and articles reporting on interventions/programs to stimulate a physically active lifestyle after rehabilitation or explicitly defined as part of the rehabilitation. Methodological quality was assessed with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The review was registered in Prospero (PROSPERO:CRD42020178556).

Results
Twenty-one articles reported on recommendations. Low-impact activities were allowed. Contact sports, most ball sports, and martial arts were not recommended. One study informed on whether health-enhancing PA recommendations were used to stimulate persons to become physically active. No studies included recommendations on sedentary behavior. Eleven studies reported on interventions. Interventions used guidance from a coach/physiotherapist; feedback on PA behavior from technology; and face-to-face, education, goal-setting, financial incentives and coaching/financial incentives combined, of which feedback and education seem to be most effective. For methodological quality, 18 out of 21 (86%) articles about recommendations and 7 out of 11 (64%) articles about interventions scored yes on more than half of the MMAT questions (0–5 score).

Conclusion
There is general agreement on what kind of sports activities can be recommended by healthcare professionals like orthopedic surgeons and physiotherapists. No attention is given to amount of PA. The same is true for limiting sedentary behavior. The number of interventions is limited and diverse, so no conclusions can be drawn. Interventions including provision of feedback about PA, seem to be effective and feasible.
Objectives
Regular physical activity (PA) is considered important after total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA/TKA). Objective was to systematically assess literature on recommendations given by healthcare professionals to persons after THA and TKA and to provide an overview of existing interventions to stimulate PA and sports participation.

Methods
A systematic review with a narrative synthesis including articles published between January 1995 ...

Rehabilitation ; Personnes âgées ; Exercices pour personnes âgées

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This study was designed as a pilot test to analyze the effect of patient-centered care (PCC) bundle intervention on perioperative respiratory complications and other outcomes in hip fracture patients aged ≥80. Between Jan 2018 and Dec 2019, 198 patients comprised the routine care group and 187 comprised the PCC bundle group. After propensity score matching, 151 remained in each group. Incidence of perioperative respiratory complications in the PCC bundle group was significantly lower than in the routine care group (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, significant reductions were observed in surgery delay, length of stay, incidence of arrhythmia, hypoproteinemia, and electrolyte disturbance (all P < 0.05) in the PCC bundle group. Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index score was related, but only weakly, to length of stay and the number of perioperative complications. These results suggested that the PCC bundle might be a more suitable care modality for patients ≥80 with hip fracture.
This study was designed as a pilot test to analyze the effect of patient-centered care (PCC) bundle intervention on perioperative respiratory complications and other outcomes in hip fracture patients aged ≥80. Between Jan 2018 and Dec 2019, 198 patients comprised the routine care group and 187 comprised the PCC bundle group. After propensity score matching, 151 remained in each group. Incidence of perioperative respiratory complications in the ...

Fractures ; Hanche ; Personnes âgées

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This study aimed to explore the effects of the lockdown due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the incidence and characteristics of hip fracture in older adults. Data from the three-month lockdown period and the corresponding period in the previous year were obtained from the computerized medical records of a large acute-care hospital. No significant differences were observed in the absolute and relative numbers of hip fractures. There were no significant differences in terms of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, which are considered risk factors for falls. Similarly, there was no difference in the length of time between admission and surgery and the mean length of hospital stay. Compared to the previous year, there was a significantly higher incidence of hip fractures in older adults living alone during the lockdown. Health policy should provide social support and monitoring of healthcare, particularly to older adults living alone.
This study aimed to explore the effects of the lockdown due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on the incidence and characteristics of hip fracture in older adults. Data from the three-month lockdown period and the corresponding period in the previous year were obtained from the computerized medical records of a large acute-care hospital. No significant differences were observed in the absolute and relative numbers of hip fractures. There ...

Fractures ; COVID-19 ; Coronavirus ; Personnes âgées ; Hanche

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Transitional care from hospital to home for frail older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis | Janvier-février 2022 H

Article (Gériatrie - gérontologie)

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Frail older adults are vulnerable to hospitalization and transitional care is needed to maintain care continuity; however, there exists no review regarding transitional care focusing on frailty. This study aimed to investigate transitional care for frail older adults and its effectiveness. Search terms were (P) frail older adults; (I) transitional care initiated before discharge; (C) usual care; (O) all health outcomes. Fourteen trials were identified. The most measured outcome was readmission (n = 13), followed by mortality (n = 9), function (n = 7), quality of life (n = 5), and self-rated health (n = 5). Statistical significance effects were reported in the followings: n = 6, readmission; n = 0, mortality; n = 3, function; n = 2, quality of life; and n = 4, self-rated health. The meta-analysis demonstrated that transitional care reduced readmission at six months but not other time points nor mortality or quality of life. The intervention effectiveness was inconclusive; therefore, an evidence-based yet novel approach is necessary to establish an adequate transitional care intervention for frail older adults.
Frail older adults are vulnerable to hospitalization and transitional care is needed to maintain care continuity; however, there exists no review regarding transitional care focusing on frailty. This study aimed to investigate transitional care for frail older adults and its effectiveness. Search terms were (P) frail older adults; (I) transitional care initiated before discharge; (C) usual care; (O) all health outcomes. Fourteen trials were ...

Personnes âgées

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Background
Parkinson’s disease is a complex neurodegenerative condition with significant impact on quality of life (QoL), wellbeing and function. The objective of this review is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-management interventions for people with Parkinson’s disease, taking a broad view of self-management and considering effects on QoL, wellbeing and function.

Methods
Systematic searches of four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science) were conducted for studies evaluating self-management interventions for people with Parkinson’s disease published up to 16th November 2020. Original quantitative studies of adults with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease were included, whilst studies of atypical Parkinsonism were excluded. Full-text articles were independently assessed by two reviewers, with data extracted by one reviewer and reliability checked by a second reviewer, then synthesised through a narrative approach and, for sufficiently similar studies, a meta-analysis of effect size was conducted (using a random-effects meta-analysis with restricted maximum likelihood method pooled estimate). Interventions were subdivided into self-management components according to PRISMS Taxonomy. Risk of bias was examined with the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB2) tool or ROBIN-I tool as appropriate.

Results
Thirty-six studies were included, evaluating a diverse array of interventions and encompassing a range of study designs (RCT n = 19; non-randomised CT n = five; within subject pre- and post-intervention comparisons n = 12). A total of 2884 participants were assessed in studies across ten countries, with greatest output from North America (14 studies) and UK (six studies). Risk of bias was moderate to high for the majority of studies, mostly due to lack of participant blinding, which is not often practical for interventions of this nature. Only four studies reported statistically significant improvements in QoL, wellbeing or functional outcomes for the intervention compared to controls. These interventions were group-based self-management education and training programmes, either alone, combined with multi-disciplinary rehabilitation, or combined with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy; and a self-guided community-based exercise programme. Four of the RCTs evaluated sufficiently similar interventions and outcomes for meta-analysis: these were studies of self-management education and training programmes evaluating QoL (n = 478). Meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the self-management and the control groups with a standardised mean difference (Hedges g) of − 0.17 (− 0.56, 0.21) p = 0.38. By the GRADE approach, the quality of this evidence was deemed “very low” and the effect of the intervention is therefore uncertain.

Components more frequently observed in effective interventions, as per PRISMS taxonomy analysis, were: information about resources; training or rehearsing psychological strategies; social support; and lifestyle advice and support. The applicability of these findings is weakened by the ambiguous and at times overlapping nature of self-management components.

Conclusion
Approaches and outcomes to self-management interventions in Parkinson’s disease are heterogenous. There are insufficient high quality RCTs in this field to show effectiveness of self-management interventions in Parkinson’s disease. Whilst it is not possible to draw conclusions on specific intervention components that convey effectiveness, there are promising findings from some studies, which could be targeted in future evaluations.
Background
Parkinson’s disease is a complex neurodegenerative condition with significant impact on quality of life (QoL), wellbeing and function. The objective of this review is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-management interventions for people with Parkinson’s disease, taking a broad view of self-management and considering effects on QoL, wellbeing and function.

Methods
Systematic searches of four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, ...

Rehabilitation ; Personnes âgées ; Maladie de Parkinson

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Virtual Reality (VR) training is emerging in the neurorehabilitation field. Technological advancement is often faster than clinical implementation. Previous reviews stressed the study design and methodological weaknesses of research in the field of VR for neurorehabilitation. Clinically relevant conclusions on implementation in particular patient groups are needed. The aim was to update the existing knowledge with the recent evidence on the effects of VR training on functional ability of patients with stroke and Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Secondary objective was to analyze the aspects of usability of VR intervention in these populations. Systematic literature search (via PubMed, CENTRAL) was conducted from inception to February 29, 2020 to identify suitable articles for two population subcategories. Randomized controlled trials published from 2016 to 2020, investigating the effectiveness of VR on a variety of outcomes contributing to the functional independence were included. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was used for a methodological quality assessment of the primary studies. Given the heterogeneity in types of VR intervention and outcomes, a descriptive synthesis was conducted. A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were included (10 in stroke subcategory, 8 in PD). CASP grading ranged 9–11, suggesting high methodological quality. All studies concluded that overall VR might be as effective as the conventional training, but more motivating. In some studies, VR was found to have a greater effect, taking the high response to treatment and satisfaction into account. VR training is suggested as an effective intervention to improve the functional ability in stroke and PD patients. Addition of VR into a rehabilitation program might facilitate patient’s motivation, participation and improvement, as this method was generally well accepted, and the results of trials were promising. The consideration of disorder-specific aspects should take place during the decision-making of VR implementation.
Virtual Reality (VR) training is emerging in the neurorehabilitation field. Technological advancement is often faster than clinical implementation. Previous reviews stressed the study design and methodological weaknesses of research in the field of VR for neurorehabilitation. Clinically relevant conclusions on implementation in particular patient groups are needed. The aim was to update the existing knowledge with the recent evidence on the ...

Rehabilitation ; Personnes âgées ; Maladie de Parkinson

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- 252 p.

Open Access

This open access book defines the capability approach from contrasting perspectives. Provides examples on how the capability approach can be used in different studies. Provides a truly multidisciplinary approach with contributions from epidemiology, psychology, sociology, political science and much more.

Vieillissement ; Personnes âgées - Santé et hygiène ; Personnes âgées ; Personnes âgées - Soins

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Malgré la croyance populaire selon laquelle la sexualité disparaît avec l’âge, les recherches démontrent qu’elle représente un centre d’intérêt important pour de nombreuses personnes âgées de plus de 60 ans z Des réalités contemporaines observées dans cette population font état de besoins d’affection bien réels et d’envies sexuelles se traduisant par diverses pratiques z Et les plus âgés résidant en centre d’hébergement de soins de longue durée (CHSLD) n’en sont pas exclus z Toutefois, un certain nombre de barrières à l’expression de la sexualité des personnes âgées en institution maintiennent le personnel, et les résidents eux-mêmes, dans la perception d’une asexualité implicite z Comme la mission d’un CHSLD est d’offrir, de façon temporaire ou permanente, un milieu de vie substitut dont les principes directeurs relatifs à l’intégrité, la liberté et la dignité contribuent à prévenir des phénomènes souvent associés aux milieux résidentiels collectifs, la protection des espaces personnels constitue un premier pas dans la reconnaissance des besoins sexuels des résidents.
Malgré la croyance populaire selon laquelle la sexualité disparaît avec l’âge, les recherches démontrent qu’elle représente un centre d’intérêt important pour de nombreuses personnes âgées de plus de 60 ans z Des réalités contemporaines observées dans cette population font état de besoins d’affection bien réels et d’envies sexuelles se traduisant par diverses pratiques z Et les plus âgés résidant en centre d’hébergement de soins de longue durée ...

Sexualité ; Personnes âgées ; Gérontologie

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Objective
Fear of falling (FOF) contributes to activity restriction and institutionalization among older adults, and exercise interventions are linked to reduction in FOF. Adhering to exercise principles and adapting optimal exercise parameters are fundamental to optimizing the effectiveness of exercise interventions. The purpose of this review was to describe FOF exercise interventions in community-dwelling older adults, evaluate the extent to which these interventions followed the exercise principles and reported exercise parameters, and quantify the effect of these interventions on reducing FOF.

Methods
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of FOF exercise interventions in older adults (≥65 years) were identified from 4 databases. The methodological quality of RCTs was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. A random-effect model was used in the meta-analysis.

Results
Seventy-five RCTs were included in this review. With regard to reporting exercise principles, specificity was reported in 92% of trials, progression in 72%, reversibility in 32%, overload in 31%, diminished return in 21%, and initial value in 8%. For exercise parameters, 97% of RCTs reported exercise type; 89%, frequency; and 85%, time. Only 25% reported the intensity. The pooled effect of exercise interventions on FOF among all included studies was a standard mean difference of −0.34 (95% CI = −0.44 to −0.23).

Conclusion
This study showed a significant small to moderate effect size of exercise interventions in reducing FOF among community-dwelling older adults. Most exercise principles and intensity of exercises were not adequately reported in included trials.

Impact
These inadequate reports could undermine efforts to examine the optimal dosage for exercise prescription. More attention must be given to designing and reporting components of therapeutic exercise programs to facilitate evidence-based practice.
Objective
Fear of falling (FOF) contributes to activity restriction and institutionalization among older adults, and exercise interventions are linked to reduction in FOF. Adhering to exercise principles and adapting optimal exercise parameters are fundamental to optimizing the effectiveness of exercise interventions. The purpose of this review was to describe FOF exercise interventions in community-dwelling older adults, evaluate the extent to ...

Rehabilitation ; Physiothérapie ; Personnes âgées ; Exercices pour personnes âgées

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Background and Purpose:
Dementia affects physical as well as cognitive performance. In individuals with dementia (IWD), decline in physical performance increases with disease progression and is associated with higher functional dependence and decreased quality of life. It is paramount to examine factors that potentially preserve physical performance in IWD, particularly in light of conflicting findings on the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical performance of IWD, mainly due to limited number of high-quality studies, large heterogeneity in methods used, or insufficient reporting of methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week multimodal exercise program (MEP) combining physical and cognitive tasks on physical performance in IWD, and to identify individual characteristics of MEP responders.

Methods:
A multicenter randomized controlled trial with assessment methods identified by an expert panel was conducted. We included 319 IWD of mild to moderate severity, older than 65 years, who underwent a standardized MEP specifically designed for IWD. At baseline and immediately after the MEP, we assessed physical performance (ie, mobility, balance, and strength) and function of lower extremities (primary outcomes). Potential effects of the MEP on physical performance were identified using 2-factor analyses of variance with repeated measurements within 2 samples (ie, intention-to-treat and per-protocol sample). Additionally, we compared characteristics related to physical performance between positive, non-, and negative responders.

Results and Discussion:
Neither analysis procedure revealed statistically significant time×group effects. However, 28% to 40% of participants were positive responders with regard to balance, and strength and function of lower extremities; and these persons had statistically significant lower baseline performance in the corresponding assessments.

Conclusions:
This randomized controlled trial revealed no overall effects of the MEP on physical performance, probably due to high heterogeneity of the study sample. Findings in responder analysis showed that IWD with lower physical performance at baseline tended to benefit more than those with higher baseline performance. Thus, a higher degree of individualization of the MEP depending on baseline performance on IWD may improve overall MEP effectiveness.
Background and Purpose:
Dementia affects physical as well as cognitive performance. In individuals with dementia (IWD), decline in physical performance increases with disease progression and is associated with higher functional dependence and decreased quality of life. It is paramount to examine factors that potentially preserve physical performance in IWD, particularly in light of conflicting findings on the effectiveness of physical activity ...

Physiothérapie ; Personnes âgées ; Exercices pour personnes âgées

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Background and Purpose:
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSKDs) are the most common causes of disabilities for older adults. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of multimodal interventions including exercise rehabilitation for older adults with chronic MSKDs.

Methods:
A literature search was conducted up to February 2019 in 5 bibliographical databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared multimodal interventions including exercise rehabilitation with usual medical care or no intervention. Randomized controlled trials were assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analyses were performed and pooled mean differences (MDs) or standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated.

Results:
Sixteen RCTs (n = 2322 participants) were included. One RCT was considered at low risk of bias, 8 had some concerns of bias, and 7 had a high risk of bias. Participants suffered from hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) (n = 12 RCTs), low back pain (LBP) (n = 2 RCTs) and generalized chronic pain (GCP) (n = 2 RCTs). Multimodal interventions were significantly more effective than usual care to decrease pain (visual analog scale, out of 10 points) in the short term, MD: −0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.08 to −0.34, n = 900), and in the long term: MD: −0.52 (95% CI −0.98 to −0.05, n = 575), but these differences are not considered clinically important. In terms of disabilities, multimodal interventions were also significantly more effective than usual care. The SMDs were −0.47 (95% CI −0.61 to −0.34, n = 903) and −0.29 (95% CI −0.46 to −0.13, n = 568) for OA trials in the short and long terms, respectively, and −0.47 (95% CI −0.81 to −0.12, n = 211) for LBP and GCP trials in the short term. The magnitude of these effects may be considered as small to moderate.

Conclusion:
Multimodal intervention including exercise rehabilitation combined with usual medical care is an efficacious therapeutic option to reduce disabilities in older adults with chronic MSKDs. A significant but not clinically important effect was observed for pain. The most beneficial component of the multimodal interventions in terms of education, exercises, or medication remains to be determined.
Background and Purpose:
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSKDs) are the most common causes of disabilities for older adults. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of multimodal interventions including exercise rehabilitation for older adults with chronic MSKDs.

Methods:
A literature search was conducted up to February 2019 in 5 bibliographical databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) ...

Rehabilitation ; Physiothérapie ; Personnes âgées ; Exercices pour personnes âgées

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Type
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Descripteurs

Personnes âgées [125]

Coronavirus [21]

Exercices pour personnes âgées [19]

Rehabilitation [17]

Démence [12]

COVID-19 [11]

Physiothérapie [10]

Vieillissement [8]

Gériatrie [5]

Gérontologie [5]

Maladie de Parkinson [5]

Aidants naturels [4]

Alimentation [4]

Neurologie [4]

Chutes chez la personne âgée [3]

Exercice [3]

Fractures [3]

Maladie d'Alzheimer [3]

Malnutrition [3]

Personnes âgées - Santé et hygiène [3]

Personnes âgées - Soins [3]

Qualité de la vie [3]

SOINS INFIRMIERS [3]

Abdomen - Chirurgie [2]

Chutes chez la personnes âgée - Prévention [2]

Cognition [2]

Dépression [2]

Genou [2]

Hanche [2]

Marche (Exercice) [2]

Médicaments - Usage [2]

Nutrition [2]

Oncologie [2]

Personnes âgées - Conditions sociales [2]

Santé mentale [2]

Sarcopénie - Évaluation [2]

Soins intensifs [2]

Thérapeutique par l'exercice [2]

Travail social [2]

Urgences en gériatrie [2]

Vieillissement - Aspect psychologique [2]

Vieillissement - Aspect social [2]

Vitaminothérapie [2]

Apprentissage [1]

Arrêt cardiaque - Traitement [1]

Art-thérapie [1]

Arthrose [1]

Arts - Emploi en thérapeutique [1]

Autonomie chez la personne âgée [1]

Cancer [1]

Cerveau - Physiologie [1]

Cerveau - Vieillissement [1]

Chutes (Accidents) - Prévention [1]

Côlon - Chirurgie [1]

Conduite automobile [1]

Continence [1]

Diabète [1]

Discrimination selon l'âge [1]

Dysphasie [1]

Éducation [1]

Éducations physique pour personnes handicapées [1]

Enfants - Maladies [1]

Enfants malades - Réadaptation [1]

Ergothérapie [1]

Exercices sur chaise [1]

Femmes âgées [1]

Formation [1]

Gymnastique douce [1]

Handicapés mentaux [1]

Hypertension artérielle [1]

Incontinence urinaire chez les personnes âgées [1]

Insomnie - Thérapeutique [1]

Isolement social [1]

Longévité [1]

Maladies de la nutrition chez la personne âgée [1]

Mandala [1]

Médecine du sport [1]

Médicaments [1]

Médicaments - Usage - Prévention [1]

Mort - Aspect psychologique [1]

Motivation (Psychologie) [1]

Ostéoporose [1]

Pathologie gériatrique [1]

Perception [1]

Personnes âgées - Alimentation [1]

Personnes âgées - Loisirs [1]

Personnes âgées - Maladies - Prévention [1]

Personnes âgées - Psychologie [1]

Personnes âgées - Psychopathologie [1]

Personnes âgées - Santé mentale [1]

Personnes âgées - Soins médicaux [1]

Pharmacologie [1]

Pharmacologie clinique [1]

Psychologie clinique [1]

Réadaptation [1]

Relaxation [1]

Sexualité [1]

Soins en phase terminale [1]

Solitude chez la personne âgée [1]

Stress chez la personne âgée [1]

Trouble de la cognition - Prévention et contrôle [1]

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